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2023-08-27 17:52:56
Sunday 18:41:45
August 27 2023

Between Challenges and Prospects: The Future of BRICs and Their Role in the Global Context

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The expansion of the BRICS group represents a significant turning point in the global geopolitical arena. The entry of Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates into the original group composed of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa opens up new perspectives, challenges, and potential dynamics in the global power structure. This article examines the reasons behind the accession of these new members, analyzes the internal and external challenges that the group may face, and discusses the implications of this evolution on global geopolitics.

The Expanded Vision of BRICS: A Response to Unilateralism and the Quest for a New Multipolar World Order

The entry of Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates represents a new chapter in the collaboration of emerging and developing countries. This expansion is seen as a response to the unilateralism practiced by some Western countries, with the aim of creating a new multipolar world order that reflects the diversity of national cultural boundaries. However, this aggregation presents significant challenges given the diversity among the members and complex geopolitical dynamics.

Diversity and Tensions Among the New Members: A Challenge to Internal Cohesion

While the expansion of BRICS aims to strengthen the group and promote cooperation among emerging economies, differences among the new members can compromise internal cohesion. Russia, China, and India have competitive hegemonic aspirations, especially in Asia, while India and China may clash over natural resources in Africa and neighboring countries. Here, it is important to emphasize that the promotion of human rights and freedom of expression among the members could help overcome these internal tensions and improve group cohesion.

Complex Geopolitical Issues and Aspirations of the New Members

The accession of Iran, for example, has been considered a strategic achievement for Iranian foreign policy. The presence of Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates in the BRICS group initially seemed unthinkable, given previous tensions and events such as the collapse of the nuclear agreement. However, the involvement of these actors can contribute to easing regional relations and fostering greater economic and political cooperation, also promoting ethical values in international relations.

Implications for Global Geopolitics and the International System

The expansion of BRICS adds additional voices to the global debate and the construction of a new world order. This development can help balance Western hegemony and promote diversity and multipolarity in the international system. However, the success of the expanded group will depend on its ability to manage internal challenges, consolidate a unified vision, and address complex global issues, such as peace in Ukraine and tensions among major powers. Additionally, special attention should be given to ethics in relations and the promotion of human rights as a foundation for cooperation among members.


Let's analyze the main points of the article and provide further details and references to the sources from which we have drawn our article:

1. The Expansion of BRICS

The article begins by discussing the expansion of BRICS with the entry of six new members: Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. This expansion is seen as a "new chapter in the collaboration of emerging and developing countries" and will represent a significant part of the global economy and population.

[Source: - published on 08/23/2023]

2. The Reasons for the Expansion

The reason behind this expansion is explained, indicating that BRICS wants to strengthen its position as a global economic organization and create greater diversity in national cultural boundaries. However, it is emphasized that there are deep differences among the members, with China dominating the economy within the group.

[Source: Il Sole 24 Ore - August 24, 2023]

3. The Vision of BRICS

BRICS is described as a heterogeneous group with diverse viewpoints but a common vision for a better world. It is emphasized that the group supports the idea of a multipolar world order and the preservation of the diversity of national cultural boundaries.

[Source: Il Sole 24 Ore - August 24, 2023]

4. The Ukraine Issue

In the final declaration of the BRICS summit, support is expressed for a peaceful solution to the conflict in Ukraine through dialogue and diplomacy. It is also emphasized that BRICS does not want to compete with anyone but seeks to build a new multipolar world order.

[Source: Il Sole 24 Ore - August 24, 2023]

5. Implications for Iran's Foreign Policy

The entry of Iran into BRICS is mentioned as a historic moment and a strategic achievement for Iranian foreign policy. This represents a significant shift in geopolitical relations, especially considering previous tensions with some BRICS members.

[Source: Il Sole 24 Ore - August 24, 2023]

Additionally, it's important to note that the article also mentions the analysis of Francesco Sisci, an Italian sinologist, who emphasizes the need for the G7 and the Western system to listen to the concerns of BRICS and address the issues that have arisen from this group.

The Concept of BRICs: A Critical Analysis

The term "BRICs" was coined by Goldman Sachs in 2001 to refer to the major emerging economies. However, the acronym itself raises questions about its authenticity and its ability to challenge the West. The idea of a confrontation between BRICs and the West can be considered excessive, considering that BRICs was originally formulated to attract financial investments toward emerging economies, not necessarily to create an adversarial faction against the West.

Shades of Diversity Within BRICs

One of the challenges of BRICs lies in their heterogeneity. While some observers have hoped for the emergence of a new global governance thanks to the Super-BRICs, the reality is much more nuanced. Historical, political, and institutional differences among BRICs members make it difficult to construct a unified front. For example, India is involved in alliances like the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) with the United States, Japan, and Australia, which have contrasting goals with those of China.

The Expansion of BRICs and New Dynamics

The announcement of the expansion of BRICs to include nations such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the United Arab Emirates raises further questions about the internal dynamics of the group. While some members seem inclined to cooperate with China to gain economic benefits, others may have more nuanced and bilateral interests in participating in this alliance. This could further undermine unity within the #BRICs.

The Role of Currencies

One of the key issues is the idea of a common currency for BRICS. This proposal is still under discussion and will have to overcome many challenges, including differences in the financial and monetary systems of the members. However, if realized, it could represent a significant step toward greater financial autonomy for the group.

Tensions and Divergences

Despite the growth of the group, tensions and divergences among members persist. China and Russia may seek to turn BRICS into an anti-Western front, but Brazil, South Africa, and India have different positions on many issues. Additionally, competitive hegemonic aspirations among Russia, China, and India, as well as disputes over natural resources in Africa, represent internal challenges that could question the group's cohesion.

The Importance of Dialogue Between BRICs and G7

Despite challenges and divergences, BRICs represent an important space for dialogue among emerging economies. The G7 and Western nations should carefully consider the issues and concerns raised by BRICs. Voices outside the traditional Western core can offer fresh and alternative perspectives that could contribute to a more inclusive global governance system.

THE POINT ON - The Future of BRICs and Their Role in the Global Context

  1. 🌍 Climate Change and Sea Level Rise:

    Climate change is responsible for the increase in global temperatures, primarily caused by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels. This has been confirmed by the 2021 report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which involved numerous expert scientists in the field of climate. Rising temperatures lead to the melting of glaciers and ice caps, contributing to sea level rise. [Source: IPCC 2021 Report]

  2. 🌊 Reduction of Biodiversity and Habitat Loss:

    Biodiversity loss is a critical issue primarily caused by the destruction of the natural habitat of species. The relationship between deforestation, urbanization, and decreasing biodiversity is widely recognized by experts. For instance, the "Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services" of 2019, prepared by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), highlighted these connections.

  3. 🏭 Air and Water Pollution:

    Industrial activities and excessive use of fossil fuel-based transportation are the main sources of air pollution. This has led to the emission of greenhouse gases and contributed to climate change. Regarding water pollution, sources include the discharge of industrial and domestic waste into water bodies. The World Development Report 2020 by the World Bank underscores the urgency of addressing these issues.

  4. 🥤 Plastic and Waste:

    The accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans is a serious problem that has received much attention in recent years. It poses a threat to marine life and can even enter the human food chain. For example, a study conducted by Jambeck et al. (2015) estimated that millions of tons of plastic enter the oceans each year.

  5. 🌦️ Impacts on Human Beings:

    Environmental changes also have direct effects on human health. For instance, air pollution is linked to a range of health issues such as cardiopulmonary diseases. According to the UNEP's Global Environmental Outlook of 2019, air pollution causes around 6.7 million premature deaths annually.

  6. 🌐 International Efforts:

    The international community recognizes these problems and is trying to address them. The Paris Agreement of 2015 is an example of a global effort to tackle climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, there are numerous other international conventions and agreements to address specific environmental and sustainability issues.

The expansion of BRICS represents a significant step in the evolution of global geopolitics. The entry of new members reflects the quest for a multipolar world order and highlights challenges and opportunities for the group. Internal cohesion, management of tensions among members, and the ability to address global issues will determine the effectiveness of BRICS in shaping the future of global politics. In an increasingly interconnected and complex world, the inclusion of new members in BRICS could deeply influence the course of geopolitical history.

Technical Glossary

  • BRICS: Acronym referring to a group of emerging and developing nations including Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa.
  • Unilateralism: Political approach in which a country acts independently and without coordinating with other countries in making decisions and implementing actions.
  • Multipolar World Order: Geopolitical structure in which global power and influence are distributed among multiple major actors rather than concentrated in a few nations.
  • Internal Cohesion: Degree of unity and agreement among members of a group or organization, influencing the group's ability to act cohesively.
  • Hegemony: Political, economic, or cultural domination or predominance of one nation or group of nations over others.
  • Dialogue and Diplomacy: Peaceful approaches to conflict resolution involving communication and negotiation among involved parties.
  • Nuclear Agreement: Reference to the Iran Nuclear Deal, which was reached in 2015 between Iran and world powers to limit Iran's nuclear program.
  • Global Geopolitics: Study of dynamics and relations among nations worldwide, considering political, economic, and social factors.
  • Emerging Economies: Countries experiencing accelerated economic development, often characterized by high growth rates and increased industrialization.
  • Diversity of National Cultural Boundaries: Variation of cultural identities and traditions among different nations and peoples.
  • Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD): Security forum involving the United States, Japan, India, and Australia, with the goal of discussing regional and global issues.
  • Common Currency: Shared currency among multiple countries to facilitate trade and financial exchanges among them.
  • Greenhouse Gas: Gas that traps heat in Earth's atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming.
  • Deforestation: Large-scale removal of trees and forests, often to make way for agricultural land or urban development.
  • Biodiversity: Variation of biological life present on Earth, including ecosystems, species, and genes.
  • IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): Group of scientific experts established to assess scientific evidence on climate change and its impacts.
  • Air Pollution: Release of pollutants into the air, which can cause harm to human health and the environment.
  • Water Pollution: Contamination of water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and oceans by harmful chemicals.
  • Paris Agreement: International agreement of 2015 aiming to limit global warming by keeping the increase in average global temperature well below 2°C above preindustrial levels.
  • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme): United Nations program for environmental protection, coordinating global efforts to address environmental challenges.

Source by Redazione

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